A scientific article must include references to sources and a list of sources used after the text has been deduced.

How to make a link

References should be given in square brackets only, eg [1], [1; 6], where digits 1 and 6 correspond to the serial number of the work or source in the List of sources used. If the references to the sources are from 1 to 6, then [1-4].

To refer to specific pages after the source number through the comma of the lowercase letter "S."), for example: [1, p. 5]. If several works are referenced, they are separated by a semicolon: [1, p. 5; 6, p. 25-33].

If information, material, or statements are used from monographs, review articles, and other sources with many pages, then the reference should accurately indicate the page numbers, illustrations, tables, etc. from the source to which it is cited.

The reference in the text is usually made at the end of the sentence.

Do not make sitelinks.

Do not include in the text detailed references such as (AP Ivanov Introduction to Linguistics. - K., 2000. - P. 54).

References to unpublished and work in progress are inadmissible.

When to make a link

Reference should be made to the source when quoting indirectly - translations, opinions of other authors in their own words; when reviewing the general trends of scientific research; when providing actual data and results from previous studies.

The quote is enclosed in quotation marks and must be linked to the source with the specified page number.

Quotations usually state:

  • to confirm their own arguments;
  • as a reference to a reputable source;
  • for a critical analysis of a statement.

In other cases, it is best to do an indirect citation.

Special citation requirements

The text of the quotation begins and ends with quotation marks and is presented in the grammatical form in which it is given in the source, while preserving the features of the author's writing.

Scientific etiquette requires accurate reproduction of quoted text, since the slightest reduction in the extract can distort the content.

The citation should be complete, without arbitrary reduction of the author's text and without distortion of the author's thoughts. Missing words, sentences, paragraphs when quoting is allowed without distorting the author's text and is indicated by three dots. They are placed anywhere in the quote (at the beginning, inside, at the end). If there is a punctuation mark in front of the text or after it, it is not saved;

Scientific terms proposed by other authors are not distinguished by quotation marks, except for those that have caused general controversy. In these cases, the term "so-called" is used.

If you want to emphasize the attitude of the author of the article to the individual words or thoughts from the quoted text, then after them in parentheses put exclamation mark or question mark.

If the author of the article quotes some words in the citation, a special reservation is made, that is, after the text explaining the selection, a dot is placed, then the hyphen and the initials of the article author are indicated, and the whole text of the reservation is placed in parentheses.

Variants of such reservations are: (emphasis added. - MH), (emphasized by me. - MH), (my discharge. - MH).

Quotations are rarely used in the article; it is possible to state the main idea and after it in parentheses indicate the name of the author who first expressed it;

Well-known theses and statements of authoritative researchers are given at the beginning of the article, and the main volume of the article is devoted to presenting their own opinions; to confirm the validity of their conclusions and recommendations, one should not give the statements of other scientists, since this indicates that the idea of the researcher is not new, has been known before and is beyond doubt.

List of sources used

List of sources used - an element of the bibliographic apparatus, which contains bibliographic descriptions of the sources used and is placed after the conclusions.

The design of the list of used sources must comply with the requirements of the HAC to the bibliographic description - GOST 7.1: 2006 “Bibliographic record. Bibliographic description. General Requirements and Rules of Assembly ”(VAK Ukraine Bulletin No. 3, 2008, pp. 9-13).

Sources can be placed in one of the following ways: in the order in which the links appear in the text, or in the alphabetical order of the names of the first title authors.

Manual numbering of the sources. Do not use auto-numbering and auto-generated sitelinks.

Sources in foreign language are placed after all sources in Cyrillic, the exception is when the list is formed in the order of appearance of the link in the text.

Basic rules for the design of the source:

  • The names of articles, monographs, collections, conferences, abstracts, reports, abstracts of dissertations are given in full.
  • Articles must be given their title, publication title, year, number (issue, volume), start and end pages.
  •  For monographs, reference books, encyclopedic editions - title, place of publication (city), publishing house, year of publication (volume, part - if any), total number of pages.
  • In the list of sources with a small letter write information related to the title (textbook for universities, materials conf., Theses, teaching aids, etc.), information about responsibility (eds., Eds., Editorial. Etc. ), For example :
  • Psychology: textbook. for universities.
  • Psychology: Dictionary / Answer ed. Goncharuk PV
  • There should be a space of one printed character (space) before and after the character: dash (-), slash (/), two slash (//), colon (:). The exception is a period (.) And a comma (,) - spaces are left only after them.
  • After the slash (/) the author (s) is written exactly as it is stated on the title page or in the table of contents (if it is an article), that is, it can be Popov VV, VV Popov, Vasily Popov, Vasily Popov.
  • Thus, recording the details of an article by a single author from a periodical print will be as follows:
  • The name of the initials of the author. Title of the article. / name, patronymic or author's name and surname // Journal name. - A year. - №. - WITH. ?-?.
  • Writing of two or more authors: first the first author, after the slash (/) two / three / author's attributes are indicated:
  • The name of the initials of the first author. Title of the article. / initials surname of the first author, initials, surname of the second author // Journal name. - A year. - №. - WITH. ? -?.
  • The algorithm for designing an article from an electronic edition:
  • The name of the initials of the author. Article title [Electronic resource] / Author's name or initials Author's name // Journal name. - A year. - №. - Access mode: http: // www… (new line) the email address of the article. Example:
  • Kaban LV Evaluation of innovative activity of secondary schools in the region [Electronic resource] / Larisa V. Kaban // National education. –- 2007 - Issue 1. - Access Mode:
  • Use the Shift + Ctrl + Space (space) combination to keep the author's last name and initials in one line without breaking.
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